smoke ventilation and aeration

smoke ventilation and aeration system

Nowadays, smoke ventilation systems are one of key security elements in buildings in which people are allowed to stay. Efficient removal of smoke from a facility in which a fire occurs is crucial for security of its occupants and property stored therein, as well as for security of firefighters extinguishing a fire.

Statistics are clear: risk of intoxication with fire gases is significantly more dangerous than direct impact of fire.

gravitational smoke ventilation system | elements

Smoke dampers meeting the PN-EN 12101-2 product requirements

  • dampers to be installed in roofs and skylights
  • dampers (windows) to be installed in vertical curtain walls

Air intakes ensuring inflow of compensation air

  • windows with air intakes
  • doors with air intakes

Steering elements

  • central panels controling mechanical elements in smoke ventilation dampers and air intakes
  • triggering elements (smoke detectors, manual smoke ventilation buttons)
gravitational smoke ventilation system | elements
control panels
control panels
opening mechanisms
opening mechanisms
air intakes
air intakes
smoke dampers
smoke dampers

smoke dampers

Smoke dampers, defined as an element connecting a tilted sash with an actuator mechanism, are key elements of the smoke ventilation system, designed for high-load operation.

As these elements are located at upper areas of buildings, they must be not only highly resistant to physical and chemical factors occurring during a possible fire, but also reliable in case of intense snow and wind load.

Smoke dampers can take the form of vertical or horizontal (roof) smoke ventilation windows. Lamella windows are the kind of vertical dampers with an interesting structure and very good smoke ventilation parameters.

vertical smoke dampers | opening outwards

Vertical smoke damper - outward opening turned damper
Vertical smoke damper - outward opening turned damper
Vertical smoke damper - outward opening tilted damper
Vertical smoke damper - outward opening tilted damper
Vertical smoke damper - out-swing damper
Vertical smoke damper - out-swing damper

vertical smoke dampers | opening inwards

Vertical smoke damper - inward opening turned damper
Vertical smoke damper - inward opening turned damper
Vertical smoke damper - inward opening tilted damper
Vertical smoke damper - inward opening tilted damper
Vertical smoke damper - in-swing damper
Vertical smoke damper - in-swing damper

horizontal (roof) smoke ventilation windows

  • variants for dampers in mono-pitched and gable skylights
  • single- and double-sashed dampers
  • aerodynamically tested products available with and without deflectors
Horizontal (roof) smoke ventilation windows

Lamella smoke ventilation windows

Lamella smoke ventilation windows
Lamella windows are a type of pivot windows. Thanks to changeable lamella window sash settings it is possible to ensure as much as 80% of opened area, when compared to total window area.
  • small width of sash profiles or all-glass solutions (attractive appearance)
  • large maximum structure width
  • high tightness value
  • thermally insulated or non-insulated frame profiles
  • sashes: thermally insulated
  • filled with glass or non-transparent panel
  • possible structure lacqeuring in any RAL palette color

opening mechanisms

In the esco NRWG smoke ventilation system air intakes and smoke dampers are opened with actuators controlled with the central system panel.

Depending on functions being required, the following electromechanical actuators are used:
  • SM pin actuators (available as single or tandem actuators)
  • KM chain actuators (available as single or tandem actuators or as equipped with a bolt actuator)
  • BS arm actuators (available as single or tandem actuators or as equipped with a bolt actuator) or
  • PN pneumatically driven actuators (used in locations with extreme requirements)
Both chain and pin actuators can work as separate mechanisms and as a fully synchronized tandem system. They can also be equipped with additional modules, ensuring maximum damper tightness.

air intakes

Double-leaf doors used for communication purposes or as an escape route also serve as air intakes.

If aeration (inflow of fresh air) is necessary, fitting at a passive sash is unbolted by means of a linear actuator. Leaf opening actuators are activated after unbolting panic fittings.

Normally, panic fittings are operated independently from a linear actuator. External door side can be equipped with a handle or a knob.
air intakes

control cabinet

control cabinet
The AFG-2004 control cabinet delivers 24 VDC power supply to:
  • damper and smoke ventilation (smoke exhausts) drives
  • electromagnetic locks (electric triggering devices) in pneumatical dampers or firefighting ventilation dampers equipped with electric triggering devices
  • firefighting ventilation damper actuators
  • drives of doors with air intakes
  • smoke curtain drives
  • connectors in aeration and smoke ventilation fans
AFG control cabinets are equipped with independent power supply, so lack of power, a frequent event during fire, is not an obstacle for activation of the smoke ventilation system.

They also have comfort-increasing functions, such as alarm in case of interruption, processing time adjustment, extension limit and indicator of time remaining for next maintenance to be performed.

Additional control cabinet functions can be performed thanks to use of auxiliary modules.